2022, Supplement 3
Cardiovasc Metab Sci 2022; 33 (S3)
A review of non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies to treat high blood pressure
Chávez-Mendoza, Adolfo; Pazos-Pérez, Fabiola; Pavía-López, Abel Alberto
ABSTRACTDespite the wide availability of therapeutic options to treat high blood pressure (HBP) in market and healthcare systems, there is a low proportion of patients who achieve blood pressure goals. In this work, we review essential non-pharmaceutical measures, along with current and novel pharmacological approaches which have been recommended in the management of HBP. In summary, weight loss, increased physical activity, diminishing sodium and potassium using DASH and Mediterranean regimes, along with cessation of tobacco consumption, are widely proven non-pharmacological interventions that have demonstrated an impact in decreasing arterial blood pressure. Regarding pharmacological approaches, most of them have been focused on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), for which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) stand for the most widely used antihypertensives, as well as being cost-effective strategies to decrease arterial blood pressure. Combining diverse antihypertensive medications has also demonstrated a good approach when the formulations are implemented within one-pill administration. Nevertheless, the diverse combination with other antihypertensive regimes needs to be individualized for the clinical characteristics of each patient. Finally, novel strategies are currently being studied to handle HBP in the future.